Tariff Incidence in the Real World: Why Consumers (Mostly) Didn’t Pay the Steel Tariffs

Summary points: The import price of steel fell in the period following the 2018 imposition of a 25% steel tariff, an indicator that steel tariffs were not passed entirely onto consumers. Steel tariffs did not lead to a proportional rise in consumer prices of steel-intensive goods, such as automobiles. In many instances, firms will internalize…

The Negative Impact of GSP and Trade Liberalization on Developing Countries: A Review of the Economic Literature

The United States government has pursued trade liberalization for several decades. A substantial driver of this liberalization has been the assumption that more global trade would help developing countries become wealthier. However, there is considerable research that shows how trade liberalization policies have not always been the best tool to help support economic growth and…